Generators come in various specifications such as alternating current (AC), direct current (DC), single-phase, three-phase, gasoline-powered, diesel-powered, and gas-powered. The most common generator used in domestic settings is gasoline-powered single-phase AC generators.
Most modern single-phase generators designed for domestic use are fitted with an Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) that allows the fine adjustment of the output voltage between 110V and 130V.
- Fine adjustment via AVR on modern generators
- Adjustment of the engine speed governor
- Complex adjustments
For the purpose of this article, we will discuss how the generator voltage can be adjusted on a single phase 110V AC gasoline generator. A qualified technician best performs adjustments to the voltage output of your generator as the risk of electrocution is very high. Let’s review how the voltage can be adjusted.
Voltage On A Generator Can Be Adjusted Via The AVR
Modern generators are fitted with a voltage regulator, also known as an Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR). An older model generator without an AVR could be adjusted by setting the engine speed via the fuel governor. To increase the generator’s voltage, the engine speed must be increased by setting the fuel governor higher.
A voltage regulator is an adjustment device that controls the generator output voltage within a specified range. The function of the AVR is to control the generator voltage and keep it constant when the speed of rotation of the generator changes.
The AVR will prevent the generator voltage from being too high and potentially cause burnout of the electrical equipment or cause the battery to overcharge.
Similarly, if the generator speed decreases, the AVR will prevent the generator voltage from dropping too low and causing electrical equipment malfunction and insufficient battery charge. The AVR has a set screw that allows the generator voltage to be finely adjusted between 110 V and 130 V.
The AVR has to be unscrewed, and the adjustment screw can be adjusted incrementally by quarter or half turn adjustments up or down. The AVR is then screwed back into position, and the generator starts after each adjustment to measure the output voltage.
Do not try and make adjustments to the AVR voltage set screw while the generator is running! The risk of electrocution is very high.
Repeat the adjustment cycle at a quarter, or half turns until the desired voltage output is achieved. The generator is set to run at a constant engine speed for the generator to produce a stable voltage.
The AVR will balance out the voltage variations if the engine runs at a variable speed.
When Should You Adjust The Generator Output Voltage?
If this output is too low or too high, you can adjust the engine speed by adjusting the throttle control up or down as is required. Modern generators are fitted with a voltage regulator of the automatic voltage regulator (AVR) that will keep the output voltage constant when the engine speed varies.
Portable generators are ideal for powering electrical tools and appliances in the event of a blackout or when in an off-grid situation. Older generation generators have an adjustment setting for the engine speed to adjust the output voltage up or down.
Running power tools, computers, or domestic appliances at a voltage that is too low or too high can cause irreparable damage to the device. Check the device for the required voltage settings and range of variation that the device can tolerate.
The generator is normally fitted with an output voltage gauge that will indicate the delivery voltage output. A set screw on the AVR can also be adjusted to set the constant output voltage higher or lower. This adjustment must be done incrementally while the generator engine is off.
Startup the engine after each adjustment and let it run for five minutes to see which voltage the new setting stabilizes.
How Is Voltage Generated And Controlled In A Generator?
Electric power generation is achieved when a conductive coil or loop is rotated within a magnetic field according to the Faradays Law of Induction. With every rotation of the coil through the magnetic field, a voltage is generated between the ends of the conductive coil.
To generate more or less voltage, the number of revolutions of the coil through the magnetic field can be adjusted, or the strength of the magnetic field can be varied. In a gasoline-powered generator, the easiest way to adjust the voltage is to adjust the speed at which the engine rotates.
The rotating engine is connected to the induction coils placed inside a constant magnetic field. By increasing the engine speed, the number of rotations of the induction coils through the magnetic field increases, generating an increase in potential difference or voltage.
If the engine speed is set to a lower number of rotations per minute, the induction coils will generate a lower potential difference or voltage.
Generators are designed to run at a constant engine velocity and produce a constant voltage output. The voltage output can be adjusted by increasing or decreasing the engine speed within limits.
Automatic Voltage Regulators (AVR) are fitted to modern generators to smooth out the voltage output caused by engine speed fluctuations. Fine adjustment to the AVR can adjust the engine’s speed to control the voltage output to a new value.
The extent of adjustment is limited to 110 V to 130 V for domestic AC generators.
Who Can Adjust The Voltage Output On A Generator?
Domestic AC or DC generators have sufficient voltage to deliver fatal shocks and should not be operated or adjusted by inexperienced users. Most generators are fitted to make fine adjustments to the output voltage within a defined range.
Contact the manufacturer or a qualified technician for assistance if your generator is not delivering a sufficiently high voltage and you cannot adjust to the required output voltage.
Read the user manual with care to establish what adjustments are possible on your model and how this can safely be done. If the generator cannot deliver the voltage output you require, you may have bought the incorrect model or need help from an expert.
Electrocution or the risk of electrical fire are not risks to be ignored by novices. Get expert assistance.